In this country patients have a legal right to refuse treatment even if death will be the result, though doctors may make it difficult for them to exercise this right. One reason for many is that they feel uneasy about regarding life itself as just a possession which can be dealt with in the same way as any other.
But, as before, the distinction between negative and positive rights is relevant. Other rights are positive rights to receive goods or services.
On the other hand, it is not much use as a guide to action. He lays stress on the distinctive nature of man and on the best life as one in which rational faculties are well exercised. But it is not clear that Respect for Persons must condemn all cases of suicide and voluntary euthanasia, particularly as personhood is conceived of in terms of reason and capacity for morality, not merely being alive.
On the Utilitarian view a law which does not have the best consequences is not the right law; so the cautious Utilitarian would have to advocate in public that the law should continue to forbid euthanasia, but in private that people should frequently break it.
We are apt to assume that the law should reflect private morality: Clearly this right cannot be unlimited. Another negative right which features on many lists is a right to do as one sees fit, or right of liberty. Aristotle thinks we cannot but pursue our own good as we see it, and perhaps he is right.
I do not have a right to harm others, and if what I want to do interferes with what they want to do we will need to arrive at some compromise. However, there are severe problems for the Utilitarian approach to the defence of voluntary euthanasia. However, there are also secular points of view which give a special status to human life and which at first sight seem to rule out voluntary euthanasia.
The other formula that I wish to consider is Respect for Persons as Ends. Her approach to death with dignity demonstrates how this issue can be approached philosophically by means of several different schools of thought.
They have a unique worth which cannot be measured in terms of any amount of other goods. If sufficient numbers of people would gain in happiness and quality of life from the death of one person, the Utilitarian has to agree that such an action would be justified, provided it could be carried out without causing a general panic which would outweigh the hoped-for gain in happiness.
I shall return to Egoism at the end of my paper. For Ideal Utilitarians can counter the familiar objection to euthanasia - that no one who receives proper expert care need die in pain and distress - by saying that the good that they seek is not mere absence of pain, physical or mental, but the preservation of dignity and the exercise of the human endowment of autonomy.
But for present purposes Deontologists can be divided into those who start from lists of separate duties or rights, and those who start from one general formula from which more particular duties may all be derived.
This term can be used broadly to mean morality, seen as like law but distinct from the man-made laws of particular states and conceived of as prescribed by reason and perhaps ultimately by God. He thought that suicide was the destruction of a uniquely valuable human self for the sake of some mere wish - for example, the wish to relieve pain or misery.
The Ideal version of Utilitarianism is even more in tune with the views of those who advocate the possibility of death with dignity through voluntary euthanasia. But he aims to win us to a noble view of that good, in which our own true welfare is to be the best we can be.
A doctrine which prescribes this, even if on rare occasions, is too much at variance with our ordinary ideas of morality to be persuasive. I think that both the Hedonistic and the Ideal Utilitarian would argue that voluntary euthanasia is often right.
Introduction This paper tries to set the issue of voluntary euthanasia in a philosophical framework by showing how some of the main philosophical theories about morality would deal with the topic. Other people may have a duty to provide these, though it tends to be difficult to decide exactly who, as with such rights as the right to work.Philosophical Approach 2 Abstract This paper examined two philosophical and humanistic approaches I have chosen as my rationale to counseling and psychotherapy.
The paper will define and explain the objectives and techniques of these two dynamic therapies. February 12th, | Category: Psychology Counseling | Comments are closed.
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FORGIVENESS IN COUNSELING: A PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVE 1. INTRODUCTION There is, in the contemporary world of counseling, an increasingly visible his work-particularly at his recent essay "Counseling Within the Forgive Forgiveness In Counseling: A Philosophical Perspective Could, for example, a philosophical counselor welcome.
However, I believe that Person Centered Counseling is an approach which emphasizes the client’s responsibility to take control of their own experience. In this approach the client is given the tools and encouragement to make their own decisions and realize their own potential for growth.Download